The principle goal of this text is to assist design engineers in deciding on the proper battery administration and charging IC and finishing their proof of idea (PoC) part. The assets offered embody schematics, invoice of fabric (BOM), design information, GUI interface software program, and so on

The lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell is among the commonest vitality sources in at the moment’s battery-driven world. Li-ion cells have good vitality density and may be recharged. However they’re very risky and thus require specialised chargers to maintain the battery and gadget secure.

The principle goal of this text is to assist design engineers in deciding on the proper battery administration and charging IC and finishing their proof of idea (PoC) part. The assets offered embody schematics, invoice of fabric (BOM), design information, GUI interface software program, and so on.

All of the reference designs within the article can be utilized as impartial cell chargers. A number of the designs are sufficiently small to be built-in right into a product as a sub-system for charging an in-built battery.

On this article, we are going to focus on the important parameters of every of the Li-ion chargers. Desk 1 lists the necessary parameters of all of the charging reference designs.

What’s a Reference Design?

Wikipedia defines a reference design as a technical blueprint of a system that’s meant for others to repeat. The principle goal of the reference design is to assist corporations within the growth of next-generation merchandise utilizing the most recent applied sciences. The reference product is proof of the platform idea and is often focused for particular purposes. It allows a quick observe to market, thereby reducing prices and decreasing danger within the buyer’s integration mission.

TIDA-00590 for quick charging with low thermal funds

The TI TIDA-00590 is a quick charger reference design module from Texas Devices. It’s able to quick charging a single Li-ion cell with 5A cost present with low thermal funds. The circuit design has been examined by TI and makes use of the EVM GUI and getting began information.

TIDA 00590 utilises two charging ICs marked as U1 and U2 in a twin IC configuration, which gives greater than their 5A most cost present and distributes the warmth loss throughout the board extra effectively. The charging IC bq25890/2 is a extremely built-in 5A switch-mode battery cost administration and system energy path administration gadget for single-cell Li-ion and Li-polymer batteries.

To realize greater effectivity, the module presents a low impedance energy path, which additionally reduces battery charging time whereas extending the battery life throughout discharging part. The IC additionally integrates enter present optimiser (ICO) and resistance compensation (IRCOMP) to ship most charging energy to the battery.

The module is over 90% environment friendly with a most effectivity of about 94%. The effectivity of the charger decreases because the cost present is elevated.

This gadget helps varied enter sources, which embody a normal USB host port, USB charging port, and USB compliant adjustable excessive voltage adaptor. Moreover, it makes use of MaxCharge handshake utilizing D+/D– pins and DSEL pin for USB change management.

The gadget is compliant with USB 2.Zero and USB 3.Zero energy specs with enter present and voltage regulation. The charger options a number of security options, together with battery temperature damaging thermistor monitoring, charging security timer, overvoltage/overcurrent protections, undervoltage safety, and over-discharge safety.

The charger additionally employs a TS3USB221A, which is a high-bandwidth change that requires a 3.3V provide. Since there are two charging ICs with a single USB I/O for the charger, each the ability administration ICs must work in sync and must switch knowledge concurrently. Due to this fact, there’s a necessity for a USB hub or controllers.

The TS3USB221An answer can successfully broaden the restricted USB I/O by switching between a number of USB buses to interface them to a single USB hub or controller. The change works as a multiplexer; it takes a single USB enter and provides output to each the bq25890/2 charging ICs. To supply a 3.3V output to the TS3USB221A, an LDO LP2985AIM5-3.3/NOPB is used.

FirmModuleCost Administration ICNo. of CellsAppropriate ChemistryMax Cost
Present (in amps)
Enter Voltage (in volts)
Texas DevicesTI TIDA-00590BQ25890/21SLi-ion/Li-Po5A3.9-14No
MicrochipMCP1630MCP16301S or 2SLi-ion/NiCD/NiMH2A10-28Sure
Monolithic EnergyEV2639A-R-00BMP2639A2SLi-ion2.5A4.0-5.75No
ADIADI DC2703A-A-KITLT8491Multi-configurationLi-ion, LiPo, SLA, and so on16.6A (@12V)17-54No
Maxim Built-inMAXREFDES1219MAX147461SLi-ion3A2.2-5.5Sure
RenesasDA9318 Reference boardDA93181SLi-ion10A4.3-24No


Essential parts:

U1 – BQ25890RTWR charging administration IC

U2 – BQ25892RTWR charging administration IC

U3 – TS3USB221A high-bandwidth change

U4 – LP2985AIM5 LDO

Options:

  • Quick costs a smartphone on PCB with a low thermal funds
  • Cost currents >5A
  • This circuit design is examined and makes use of the EVM GUI and getting began information
  • Excessive effectivity
  • Built-in ADC
  • Energy path
  • USB C/PD suitable
  • USB D+/D-/BC1.2 built-in
  • USB OTG built-in
  • Working voltage 3.9V-14V
  • I2C communication
  • LED indication for standing alerts
  • Take a look at factors for key alerts out there for testing functions
  • Jumpers for various circuit configuration

Safety options:

  • BAT temp thermistor monitoring (JEITA profile)
  • BAT temp thermistor monitoring (sizzling/chilly profile)
  • IC thermal regulation
  • Unhealthy adaptor detection
  • ICO (enter present optimisation)
  • IINDPM (enter present restrict)
  • Enter OVP

The module is appropriate to be used in cell phones, cameras, tablets, standalone chargers, and so on. You could find all of the assets for TIDA 00590 by scanning the QR code.

MCP1630 multi-bay charger for 2S configuration

The MCP1630 Li-ion charger is a flexible charger design able to charging as much as two single-cell Li-ion battery packs in a parallel configuration. The facility prepare used for the MCP1630 is a SEPIC. The module can take inputs anyplace from 10V to 28V and as much as 16 modules may be daisy-chained for charging extra cells.

The MCP1630 multi-bay Li-ion charger has the pliability to optimise the charging algorithm for brand spanking new battery know-how and add proprietary options by coding the microcontroller. The charger presents a number of charging options, equivalent to enter overvoltage safety, battery overvoltage safety, thermal shutdown, battery-temperature monitoring, and battery-pack fault monitoring. It may additionally detect the standing of the battery together with the insertion and removing of the battery pack.

The mind of the charger is PIC18F2410. which is an enhanced flash microcontroller with 10-bit A/D. The microcontroller runs at a frequency of 40MHz and gives excessive computational efficiency together with decrease energy consumption.

The reference design additionally has programming header pins required for updating the firmware of the microcontroller. It additionally employs a twin op-amp MCP6292. The battery charger routinely detects the insertion or removing of a battery pack.

Essential parts:

U1, U4 – MCP1630 charging IC
U2, U5 – MCP6292 twin op-amp MSOP8
U3, U6 – SN74LVC1G66DBVR bilateral change
U7 – NC7SZ74K8k D-type flip-flop
U8 – PIC18F2410 8-bit CMOS microcontroller
U9 – SN74LVC2G14DBVR twin inverter

Options of MCP1630:

  • Programmable parameters modified in firmware
  • The MCP1630 multi-bay Li-ion charger has the pliability to optimise the charging algorithm for brand spanking new battery applied sciences and add proprietary options by coding the microcontroller
  • Managed soft-start

Security options:

  • Overvoltage safety (battery eliminated)
  • Overcharge safety to forestall the battery from turning into dangerously overcharged
  • Overcurrent safety within the occasion of a shorted battery
  • Battery reversal safety
  • Enter short-circuit safety
  • Overtemperature safety to forestall the battery from reaching too excessive a temperature throughout cost
  • Quick cost termination if the battery temperature is outdoors a preset window
  • Managed soft-start

The module is appropriate for charging a Li-Ion battery pack. You could find extra particulars and design assets by scanning the QR code.

EV2639A-R-00B 2S cell charger with built-in enhance converter

The EV2639A-R-00B from Monolith Energy is the reference design board for the MP2639A, which is a 2-cell battery cost administration system. MP2639A is a extremely built-in, versatile switch-mode cost administration IC that may take enter between 4V and 5.75V and cost 2S Li-ion and Li-Po cells. The module is able to charging 2S cell with 2.5A cost present.

The reference module works in a cost mode and primarily based on the state of the enter it determines the administration of the system and battery charging. The module additionally gives voltage primarily based gas gauge indication via 4 LED drivers current within the circuit.

The MP2639A IC is extremely programmable, whose enter voltage and present may be managed by updating the firmware. It provides an possibility of enhancing the discharge present as much as 5A. The board presents a number of security options, which embody enter overvoltage safety, battery overvoltage safety, thermal shutdown, battery temperature monitoring, and a programmable timer to forestall extended charging of a lifeless battery.

On this reference design, the MP2639A works in a step-up mode to cost the 2-cell battery from the 5V enter. In absence of the charger, the module is in discharge mode, the place it really works in a step-down mode to offer an output of 5V. For the charging operate, the battery charging IC detects the battery voltage and primarily based on the voltage costs the battery in three phases: trickle present, fixed present, and fixed voltage.

Options:

  • Bidirectional operation for charging or discharging
  • 2-cell Li-ion or Li-polymer charging
  • Cell stability and safety escorting for two-series cell charging
  • Gentle-load detection for discharge mode
  • Built-in voltage primarily based gas gauge utilizing 4 LED drivers
  • Takes 5V enter and costs 2S cell

Security options:

  • Enter overvoltage safety
  • Battery overvoltage safety
  • Thermal shutdown
  • Battery temperature monitoring
  • Programmable timer to forestall extended charging of a lifeless battery

This charger reference design can be utilized in varied units, together with cell, tablets, energy stations, cell web units, and standalone Li-ion battery chargers. You could find extra particulars and the design assets by scanning the QR code.

ADI DC2703A-A-KIT battery charger with MPPT and telemetry

The DC2703A-A-KIT from Analog Units is a reference design for a Li-ion battery charger with most energy level monitoring (MPPT) and telemetry. It employs IC LT8491 for charging and administration of Li-ion battery and DC1613A, a USB to I2C controller, for enabling communication.

The board is configured for a variety of enter voltages from 17V to 54V and is appropriate for varied energy sources, which embody varied DC sources like photo voltaic panels with 36 to 72 cells with a complete energy of as much as 200W. The module has each buck and enhance configurations, thus it could possibly take enter voltage beneath, above, or equal to the battery voltage. Aside from the Li-ion batteries, the charger is appropriate for varied different battery chemistries, together with the flooded and sealed lead-acid batteries.

The datasheet signifies that the charger is as much as 97% environment friendly when charging with a present of 6A. The effectivity of the charger decreases because the charging present will increase.

The one characteristic which units it aside from every other product is the MPPT for solar-powered purposes. The on-chip logic of LT8491 IC allows true MPPT operate, which repeatedly tracks the utmost energy level always. So as to choose the utmost worth on the ability curve, it periodically sweeps the enter panel voltage.

The LT8491 features a slave I2C suitable interface for digital management of the charger settings and digital readouts of charger telemetry and standing. The module is suitable with an MS Home windows primarily based GUI software referred to as simpleLT8491, which allows the person to watch and management the telemetry and standing knowledge of the charger and battery pack in actual time.

The DC2703A-A-KIT is able to supporting greater present and voltage for various cell configuration by changing the enter aspect MOSFETs and capacitors with ones with greater scores.

Essential parts:

U1 – ADI LT8491 battery cost controller IC
U2 – ADI LT1636CS8#PBF op-amp
U3 – ADI LTC4359CDCB superb diode controller, 6-pin DFN EP
U4 – 24LC025-I/ST reminiscence EEPROM, 2kb

Options of DC2703A-A-KIT:

  • Operation from photo voltaic panel or DC provide
  • VIN vary: 17V to 54V
  • VBAT vary: 1.3V to 80V
  • Single inductor permits VIN above, beneath, or equal to VBAT
  • Computerized MPPT for photo voltaic powered charging
  • Computerized temperature compensation
  • I2C telemetry and configuration
  • Distant sensing of battery voltage

This charger reference design can be utilized as a photo voltaic charger or a standalone charger for a number of cell chemistries, which embody Li-ion, LiPo, and SLA. Extra particulars in regards to the reference design may be considered by scanning the QR code.

MAXREFDES1219 – a USB BC 1.2 compliant design

The MAXREFDES1219 is an built-in charger design for the 1-cell Li+ battery. The module is an optimum charger for each charging and monitoring. For charging administration, it employs MAX14746 IC, which is a USB charger that integrates a charger detector, linear regulator, and sensible energy selector to offer as much as 2A of charging present.

The module presents options equivalent to USB charger detection and battery cell monitoring, which incorporates state of cost, open circuit voltage, temperature, present, and so on. The reference design is compliant with USB Battery Charging Rev1.2, which is able to detecting completely different battery charging strategies, together with normal downstream port, charging downstream port, and devoted charging port. The units additionally detect widespread proprietary cost adaptors, together with these from
Apple 1.

This reference design makes use of Maxim Built-in’s MAX17260 gas gauge IC, which employs the ModelGauge m5 algorithm that gives excessive estimation accuracy and has a low energy consumption. The charger allows the person to set the cost termination voltage between 4.05V and 4.6V.

The MAXREFDES1219 may be configured shortly and simply through the use of the GUI software program offered by the corporate. It requires a MAX32660EVSYS breakout board for connecting it with the PC. The MAX32660 module can allow learn and write management of the 2 MAX14746/MAX17260 registers via the I2C interface.

The GUI’s demo view window shows the standing and allows the management of each the charger and the gas gauge monitor. The software program is simple to make use of and routinely detects the {hardware} on making the connection.

Essential parts:

U1 – MAX14746 charging IC
U2 – MAX17260 gas gauge IC

Options:

  • USB Battery Charging Rev. 1.2 compliant
  • Able to detecting proprietary charger, equivalent to Apple 1
  • Easy GUI for monitoring and controlling the parameters
  • Max present 2A
  • Displays from 1S battery cell
  • Home windows 10 suitable software program
  • I2C serial interface
  • State of cost measurement

Security options:

  • Charger detection
  • JEITA cost safety
  • Thermal safety
  • Battery cell monitoring
  • Open circuit voltage
  • Temperature monitoring
  • Present monitoring

The reference design can be utilized for varied purposes, which embody moveable shopper units, digital imaging units (DSC, DVC), moveable industrial units, USB 1-cell pack gear, and so on. Extra particulars in regards to the reference design may be considered by scanning the QR code.

DA9318 – 10A quick battery charger

DA9318 from Renesas is a Li-ion quick cell charger reference design that can be utilized as a standalone 1S charger or may be carried out into laptops, smartphones, tablets, and so on. The charger module employs an ATMEL SAM3U microcontroller because the USB transceiver. This provides the I2C performance to the board and in addition the discrete digital IO management GPIO and devoted capabilities.

The cost administration IC DA9318M is able to offering a most charging present of 10A. The charger is able to charging with as much as 98% effectivity delivering 2A cost present. This charger employs a high-efficiency present doubler with an built-in ADC for system monitoring.

The reference design is able to dealing with present as much as 10Some time sustaining the security of the battery. It operates along with the primary charger, which handles the pre-charge and fixed voltage charging duties. The charger is able to delivering as much as 6A present through the use of the usual Kind C cable. The quick charging is achieved by the doubler circuit that makes use of a high-efficiency capacitive divider. The output voltage it gives is given by VIN/2.

The module has a number of security options, which embody an built-in reverse safety that blocks present move in each the instructions when the gadget is in off state. The DA9318 employs six {hardware} primarily based security capabilities for any undervoltage or overvoltage situation. All safety-triggered occasions result in an computerized shutdown and are reported through an interrupt to the system.

It employs an 8-bit ADC to maintain a test on parameters equivalent to enter present, output present, voltage, and junction temperature. For software program supervision a programmable watchdog timer and for battery overload safety a security timer are included.

The module employs two energy monitoring INA226 ICs, which allow the measurement of the primary charger enter voltage and enter present and permits the monitoring of the battery parameters. I2C protocol is used for communication.

When the cost present reaches a handover cost present threshold, which is arbitrarily set to 0.9A, the DA9318 is switched off and the primary charger is enabled and finishes off the cost cycle. The module is over 98% environment friendly when supplying an output present of 0.9A.

Essential parts:

U1 – DA9318 charging IC
U2 – ATMEL SAM3U microcontroller

Options:

  • Protected high-voltage direct charging
  • Journey adaptor detection
  • Consumer programmable overcurrent ptotection threshold
  • Constructed-in fault safety
  • Excessive immunity of false triggering beneath transients
  • Responds to enter overvoltage in lower than 1µs
  • Fault indication for varied fault occurrences
  • 10A output present (DA9318M)
  • 98% effectivity at 2A
  • 10% present sense accuracy (DA9318M)
  • Reverse and ahead present safety in IDLE mode
  • I2C suitable 2-wire interface

Security options:

  • Computerized shutdown in fault situation
  • Excessive-accuracy safety thresholds
  • Overcurrent safety
  • Reverse and ahead present safety in IDLE mode
  • Junction temperature monitoring

This charger reference design can be utilized in varied units, together with cell, standalone Li-ion battery chargers, tablets, bigger battery packs, laptops, and so on. Extra particulars in regards to the reference design may be discovered by scanning the QR code.


The writer, Sharad Bhowmick, works as a Expertise Journalist at EFY. He’s keen about energy electronics and vitality storage applied sciences. He needs to assist obtain the purpose of a carbon impartial world.





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