An inverter offers energy backup for mains-based home equipment within the occasion of an influence failure. Many of the inverters obtainable out there have sophisticated circuit designs and aren’t very economical. A few of them produce a square-wave output, which is undesirable for inductive masses.

Right here we designed a easy sine wave inverter circuit that produces 50Hz quasi-sine wave output utilizing a single IC CD4047 and a few discrete parts, which makes it a really cost-effective resolution.

Components Required:

Inverter Circuit Components List
Components Checklist

The DIY sine wave inverter circuit utilizing IC 4047 is given beneath.

Sine Wave Inverter circuit diagram
Sine Wave Inverter Schematic

It includes a CD4047 multivibrator (IC1), MOSFET, IRF250 MOSFETs (T1 by way of T8), transistors, and some discrete parts.

IC CD4047 has built-in services for astable and bistable multivibrators. The inverter software requires two outputs which might be 180 levels out of section. Subsequently IC1 is wired to supply two square-wave output alerts at pins 10 and 11 with 50Hz frequency, 50% obligation cycle, and 180-degree section shift. The oscillating frequency is set by exterior preset VR1 and capacitor C1.

These two alerts drive the 2 MOSFET banks (bank-1 and bank-2) alternatively. When pin 10 of IC1 is excessive and pin 11 low, MOSFETs of bank-1 (T1 by way of T4) conduct, whereas MOSFETs of bank-2 (T5 by way of T8) stay within the non-conducting state.

Subsequently a big swing of present flows by way of the primary half of the first winding of inverter transformer X1 and 230V AC develops throughout the secondary winding.

Throughout the subsequent half cycle, the voltage at pin 10 of IC1 goes low, whereas the voltage at pin 11 is excessive. Thus MOSFETs of bank-2 conduct, whereas the MOSFETs of bank-1 stay non-conducting. Subsequently present flows by way of the opposite half of the first winding and 230V AC develops throughout the secondary winding.

This manner an alternating output voltage is obtained throughout the secondary winding.

The sine wave output is obtained by forming a tank circuit with the secondary winding of the inverter transformer in parallel with capacitors C5 by way of C7. Two 2.2µF capacitors are related to the gates of the MOSFETs in each banks with respect to the bottom if correct sinewave isn’t produced.

The pure frequency of the tank circuit is adjusted to 50 Hz. Present consumption with no load is barely 500 mA as a result of 50% obligation cycle of the square-wave sign. Because the load is elevated, present consumption will increase.

The provision voltage to IC1 is restricted to five.1 volts through the use of Zener ZD1 and resistor R4 with the exterior battery.

Low-battery Indicator Circuit

The low-battery indication circuit consists of transistor T9, preset VR2, Zener diode ZD2, resistors R5, R6, and R7, LED2, and capacitor C2. The 12V provide voltage from BATT.1 is utilized to the low-battery indicator circuit with a full load (no more than 1000 watts) related to the inverter output.

Low Battery Indicator Circuit Diagram
Low Battery Indicator Circuit

The voltage throughout the load is 230V AC. At this instantaneous, regulate preset VR2 such that Zener diode ZD2 and transistor T9 conduct to drop the collector voltage to 0.7 volt conserving LED2 ‘off.’

If the availability voltage goes beneath 10.5 volts, the voltage throughout the load decreases from 230V AC to 210V AC.

At this instantaneous, Zener diode ZD2 and transistor T9 don’t conduct, and therefore the collector voltage will increase to about 10.5 volts and LED2 glows to point the low voltage of the battery.

On the identical time, piezo buzzer PZ1 produces an audio tone indicating a low battery.

Low-battery Reduce-off Circuit

If the battery is discharged to zero volts repeatedly, the battery life will lower. The low-battery cut-off circuit consists of transistor T10, preset VR3, Zener diode ZD4, resistors R8 and R9, capacitor C3, and diode D1.

Low-battery Cut-off Circuit Diagram
Low-battery Reduce-off Circuit

Alter preset VR3 such that when the voltage throughout the load is above 200 volts, Zener diode ZD4 and transistor T10 conduct. The collector voltage of T10 is about 0.7 volts on this case and therefore the SCR (SCR1) won’t conduct.

But when the voltage throughout the load goes beneath 200 volts, Zener diode ZD4 and transistor T10 won’t conduct and the collector voltage of T10 will enhance, inflicting the SCR to conduct.

As soon as the SCR conducts, the availability voltage to IC1 (CD4047) shall be 0.7 volts, as a result of which IC1 shall be unable to supply the voltage pulses at output pins 10 and 11 and the inverter will flip off robotically. Throughout this state, the SCR stays performed.

The low cut-off of the inverter will be set on the load voltage of 170 volts for the tube mild, fan, and many others. So the tube mild and fan won’t be switched off till the voltage goes beneath 170 volts.

No-load Reduce-off Circuit

If there isn’t any load related to the output of the inverter, the output voltage is 270 to 290 volts. This voltage is sensed by the 0-12V faucet on the secondary winding of inverter transformer X1, which is related to the no-load cut-off circuit comprising Zener diode ZD5, transistor T11, preset VR4, resistors R12 and R11, and capacitor C4.

No-load Cut-off Circuit
No-load Reduce-off Circuit

When no load is related, the voltage on the 12V faucet will even enhance. This voltage is rectified by the full-wave bridge rectifier comprising diodes D3 by way of D6, filtered by capacitor C4 and given to transistor T11.

Alter preset VR4 such that if the inverter voltage goes above 250 volts, Zener diode ZD5 and transistor T11 conduct. This will increase the emitter voltage, therefore the SCR fires to modify the inverter ‘off.’ When a correct load is related, the inverter will robotically activate.

Sine Wave Inverter PCB Design

An actual-size, single-side PCB for the pure sine wave inverter circuit is proven beneath.

Sinewave inverter PCB Design
An actual-size, single-side PCB for the sine wave inverter circuit

An appropriate connector CON1 is supplied on the PCB to attach the MOSFET banks and the transformer externally. Connector CON1 pins A by way of F are additionally marked on the schematic.

Assemble the circuit on a PCB because it saves time and minimizes meeting errors. Rigorously assemble the parts and double-check for any missed errors. MOSFETs must be mounted over warmth sinks utilizing mica spacers because the insulators between them.

Sine Wave Inverter PCB Layout
Sine Wave Inverter PCB Structure

Obtain PCB and Component Layout PDFs

Join the 24V provide terminal on to the middle faucet of the first winding of the inverter transformer, which carries a most present of greater than 50 amperes with 1000 watts.

The present is dependent upon the load utilized. There is no such thing as a want so as to add a swap within the high-current path to make the inverter activate and off. The inverter will be switched on and off by low-current swap S1.

You possibly can test the opposite inverter circuits beneath:

About Creator:

Dr. R.V. Dhekale: He’s an affiliate professor and head of the Division of Physics, Kisan Veer Mahavidyalaya, Wai, District Satara, Maharashtra.

The article was first printed on 27 March 2016 and was just lately up to date on 16 November 2022.

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